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Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent.

Typically, each body segment has one ganglion on each side, though some ganglia are fused to form the brain and other large ganglia.White matter is composed mainly of myelinated axons, and takes its color from the myelin.White matter includes all of the nerves, and much of the interior of the brain and spinal cord.The PNS is divided into a) somatic and b) autonomic nervous system, and c) the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems.The sympathetic nervous system is activated in cases of emergencies to mobilize energy, while the parasympathetic nervous system is activated when organisms are in a relaxed state.

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